Migration from RC5 or earlier

RC6 introduced changes to the following:

  • The routing middleware was split into separate middleware, one for routing, and one for dispatching.
  • Due to the above change, we decided to remove auto-registration of routing middleware.
  • The above change also suggested an alternative to the middleware pipeline configuration that simplifies it.
  • Route result observers are deprecated, and no longer triggered for routing failures.
  • Middleware configuration specifications now accept a priority key to guarantee the order of items. If you have defined your middleware pipeline in multiple files that are then merged, you will need to defined these keys to ensure order.

Routing and Dispatch middleware

Prior to RC6, the routing middleware:

  • performed routing
  • notified route result observers
  • created a new request that composed the matched routing parameters as request attributes, and composed the route result instance itself as a request attribute.
  • marshaled the middleware matched by routing
  • dispatched the marshaled middleware

To provide a better separation of concerns, we split the routing middleware into two distinct methods: routingMiddleware() and dispatchMiddleware().

routingMiddleware() performs the following duties:

  • routing; and
  • creating a new request that composes the matched routing parameters as request attributes, and composes the route result instance itself as a request attribute.

dispatchMiddleware() performs the following duties:

  • marshaling the middleware specified in the route result; and
  • dispatching the marshaled middleware.

One reason for this split is to allow injecting middleware to operate between routing and dispatch. As an example, you could have middleware that determines if a matched route requires an authenticated identity:

public function __invoke($request, $response, $next)
{
    $result = $request->getAttribute(RouteResult::class);
    if (! in_array($result->getMatchedRouteName(), $this->authRequired)) {
        return $next($request, $response);
    }

    if (! $this->authenticated) {
        return $next($request, $response->withStatus(401), 'authentication
        required');
    }
}

The above could then be piped between the routing and dispatch middleware:

$app->pipeRoutingMiddleware();
$app->pipe(AuthenticationMiddleware::class);
$app->pipeDispatchMiddleware();

Since the routing middleware has been split, we determined we could no longer automatically pipe the routing middleware; detection would require detecting both sets of middleware, and ensuring they are in the correct order. Additionally, since one goal of splitting the middleware is to allow substitutions for these responsibilities, auto-injection could in some cases be undesired. As a result, we now require you to inject each manually.

Impact

This change will require changes in your application.

  1. If you are using Expressive programmatically (i.e., you are not using a container and the Zend\Expressive\Container\ApplicationFactory), you are now required to call Application::pipeRoutingMiddleware(). Additionally, a new method, Application::pipeDispatchMiddleware() exists for injecting the application with the dispatch middleware, this, too, must be called.

This has a fortunate side effect: registering routed middleware no longer affects the middleware pipeline order. As such, you can register your pipeline first or last prior to running the application. The only stipulation is that unless you register the routing and dispatch middleware, your routed middleware will not be executed! As such, the following two lines must be added to your application prior to calling Application::run():

$app->pipeRoutingMiddleware();
$app->pipeDispatchMiddleware();
  1. If you are creating your Application instance using a container and the Zend\Expressive\Container\ApplicationFactory, you will need to update your configuration to list the routing and dispatch middleware. The next section details the configuration changes necessary.

ApplicationFactory configuration changes

As noted in the document summary, the middleware pipeline configuration was changed starting in RC6. The changes are done in such a way as to honor configuration from RC5 and earlier, but using such configuration will now prompt you to update your application.

RC5 and earlier defined the default middleware_pipeline configuration as follows:

return [
    'middleware_pipeline' => [
        // An array of middleware to register prior to registration of the
        // routing middleware
        'pre_routing' => [
            //[
            // Required:
            //    'middleware' => 'Name or array of names of middleware services and/or callables',
            // Optional:
            //    'path'  => '/path/to/match',
            //    'error' => true,
            //],
            [
                'middleware' => [
                    Helper\ServerUrlMiddleware::class,
                    Helper\UrlHelperMiddleware::class,
                ],
            ],
        ],

        // An array of middleware to register after registration of the
        // routing middleware
        'post_routing' => [
            //[
            // Required:
            //    'middleware' => 'Name of middleware service, or a callable',
            // Optional:
            //    'path'  => '/path/to/match',
            //    'error' => true,
            //],
        ],
    ],
];

The following changes have been made:

  • The concept of pre_routing and post_routing have been deprecated, and will be removed starting with the 1.1 version. A single middleware pipeline is now provided, though any individual specification can also specify an array of middleware.
  • The routing and dispatch middleware must now be added to your configuration for them to be added to your application.
  • Middleware specifications can now optionally provide a priority key, with 1 being the default. High integer priority indicates earlier execution, while low/negative integer priority indicates later execution. Items with the same priority are executed in the order they are registered. Priority is now how you can indicate the order in which middleware should execute.

Impact

While the configuration from RC5 and earlier will continue to work, it will raise deprecation notices. As such, you will need to update your configuration to follow the guidelines created with RC6.

RC6 and later change the configuration to remove the pre_routing and post_routing keys. However, individual items within the array retain the same format as middleware inside those keys, with the addition of a new key, priority:

[
    // Required:
    'middleware' => 'Name of middleware service, or a callable',
    // Optional:
    //    'path'  => '/path/to/match',
    //    'error' => true,
    //    'priority' => 1, // integer
]

The priority key is used to determine the order in which middleware is piped to the application. Higher integer values are piped earlier, while lower/negative integer values are piped later; middleware with the same priority are piped in the order in which they are discovered in the pipeline. The default priority used is 1.

Additionally, the routing and dispatch middleware now become items in the array; they (or equivalent entries for your own implementations) must be present in your configuration if you want your routed middleware to dispatch! This change gives you full control over the flow of the pipeline.

To specify the routing middleware, use the constant Zend\Expressive\Container\ApplicationFactory::ROUTING_MIDDLEWARE in place of a middleware array; this has the value EXPRESSIVE_ROUTING_MIDDLEWARE, if you do not want to import the class. Similarly, for the dispatch middleware, use the constant Zend\Expressive\Container\ApplicationFactory::DISPATCH_MIDDLEWARE (value EXPRESSIVE_DISPATCH_MIDDLEWARE) to specify the dispatch middleware.

As such, the default configuration now becomes:

return [
    'middleware_pipeline' => [
        // An array of middleware to pipe to the application.
        // Each item is of the following structure:
        // [
        //     // Required:
        //     'middleware' => 'Name or array of names of middleware services and/or callables',
        //     // Optional:
        //     'path'  => '/path/to/match',
        //     'error' => true,
        // ],
        [
            'middleware' => [
                Helper\ServerUrlMiddleware::class,
            ],
            'priority' => PHP_INT_MAX,
        ],

        // The following is an entry for:
        // - routing middleware
        // - middleware that reacts to the routing results
        // - dispatch middleware
        [
            'middleware' => [
                Zend\Expressive\Container\ApplicationFactory::ROUTING_MIDDLEWARE,
                Helper\UrlHelperMiddleware::class,
                Zend\Expressive\Container\ApplicationFactory::DISPATCH_MIDDLEWARE,
            ],
            'priority' => 1,
        ]

        // The following is an entry for the dispatch middleware:

        // Place error handling middleware after the routing and dispatch
        // middleware, with negative priority.
        // [
        //     'middleware' => [
        //     ],
        //     'priority' => -1000,
        // ],
    ],
];

To update an existing application:

  • Promote all pre_routing middleware up a level, and remove the pre_routing key. Provide a priority value greater than 1. We recommend having a single middleware specification with an array of middleware that represents the "pre routing" middleware.
  • Add the entries for Zend\Expressive\Container\ApplicationFactory::ROUTING_MIDDLEWARE and Zend\Expressive\Container\ApplicationFactory::DISPATCH_MIDDLEWARE immediately following any pre_routing middleware, and before any post_routing middleware; we recommend grouping it per the above example.
  • Promote all post_routing middleware up a level, and remove the post_routing key. Provide a priority value less than 1 or negative.
  • If you have middleware_pipeline specifications in multiple files, you will need to specify priority keys for all middleware in order to guarantee order after merging. We recommend having a single middleware specification with an array of middleware that represents the "post routing" middleware.

As an example, consider the following application configuration:

return [
    'middleware_pipeline' => [
        'pre_routing' => [
            [
                'middleware' => [
                    Zend\Expressive\Helper\ServerUrlMiddleware::class,
                    Zend\Expressive\Helper\UrlHelperMiddleware::class,
                ],
            ],
            [ 'middleware' => DebugToolbarMiddleware::class ],
            [
                'middleware' => ApiMiddleware::class,
                'path' => '/api',
            ],
        ],

        'post_routing' => [
            ['middleware' => NotFoundMiddleware::class, 'error' => true],
        ],
    ],
];

This would be rewritten to the following to work with RC6 and later:

return [
    'middleware_pipeline' => [
        'always' => [
            'middleware' => [
                Zend\Expressive\Helper\ServerUrlMiddleware::class,
                DebugToolbarMiddleware::class,
            ],
            'priority' => PHP_INT_MAX,
        ],
        'api' => [
            'middleware' => ApiMiddleware::class,
            'path' => '/api',
            'priority' => 100,
        ],

        'routing' => [
            'middleware' => [
                Zend\Expressive\Container\ApplicationFactory::ROUTING_MIDDLEWARE,
                Zend\Expressive\Helper\UrlHelperMiddleware::class,
                Zend\Expressive\Container\ApplicationFactory::DISPATCH_MIDDLEWARE,
            ],
            'priority' => 1,
        ],

        'error' => [
            'middleware' => [
                NotFoundMiddleware::class,
            ],
            'error' => true,
            'priority' => -1000,
        ],
    ],
]

Note in the above example the various groupings. By grouping middleware by priority, you can simplify adding new middleware, particularly if you know it should execute before routing, or as error middleware, or between routing and dispatch.

Keys are ignored

The above example provides keys for each middleware specification. The factory will ignore these, but they can be useful for cases when you might want to specify configuration in multiple files, and merge specific entries together. Be aware, however, that the middleware key itself is an indexed array; items will be appended based on the order in which configuration files are merged. If order of these is important, create separate specifications with relevant priority values.

Route result observer deprecation

As of RC6, the following changes have occurred with regards to route result observers:

  • They are deprecated for usage with Zend\Expressive\Application, and that class will not be a route result subject starting in 1.1. You will need to start migrating to alternative solutions.
  • The functionality for notifying observers has been moved from the routing middleware into a dedicated Application::routeResultObserverMiddleware() method. This middleware must be piped separately to the middleware pipeline for it to trigger.

Impact

If you are using any route result observers, you will need to ensure your application notifies them, and you will want to migrate to alternative solutions to ensure your functionality continues to work.

To ensure your observers are triggered, you will need to adapt your application, based on how you create your instance.

If you are not using the ApplicationFactory, you will need to pipe the routeResultObserverMiddleware to your application, between the routing and dispatch middleware:

$app->pipeRoutingMiddleware();
$app->pipeRouteResultObserverMiddleware();
$app->pipeDispatchMiddleware();

If you are using the ApplicationFactory, you may need to update your configuration to allow injecting the route result observer middleware. If you have not updated your configuration to remove the pre_routing and/or post_routing keys, the middleware will be registered for you. If you have, however, you will need to register it following the routing middleware:

[
    'middleware_pipeline' => [
        /* ... */
        'routing' => [
            'middleware' => [
                Zend\Expressive\Container\ApplicationFactory::ROUTING_MIDDLEWARE,
                Zend\Expressive\Container\ApplicationFactory::ROUTE_RESULT_OBSERVER_MIDDLEWARE,
                Zend\Expressive\Container\ApplicationFactory::DISPATCH_MIDDLEWARE,
            ],
            'priority' => 1,
        ],
        /* ... */
    ],
]

To make your observers forwards-compatible requires two changes:

  • Rewriting your observer as middleware.
  • Registering your observer as middleware following the routing middleware.

If your observer looked like the following:

use Zend\Expressive\Router\RouteResult;
use Zend\Expressive\Router\RouteResultObserverInterface;

class MyObserver implements RouteResultObserverInterface
{
    private $logger;

    public function __construct(Logger $logger)
    {
        $this->logger = $logger;
    }

    public function update(RouteResult $result)
    {
        $this->logger->log($result);
    }
}

You could rewrite it as follows:

use Zend\Expressive\Router\RouteResult;

class MyObserver
{
    private $logger;

    public function __construct(Logger $logger)
    {
        $this->logger = $logger;
    }

    public function __invoke($request, $response, $next)
    {
        $result = $request->getAttribute(RouteResult::class, false);
        if (! $result) {
            return $next($request, $response);
        }

        $this->logger->log($result);
        return $next($request, $response);
    }
}

You would then register it following the routing middleware. If you are building your application programmatically, you would do this as follows:

$app->pipeRoutingMiddleware();
$app->pipe(MyObserver::class);
$app->pipeDispatchMiddleware();

If you are using the ApplicationFactory, alter your configuration:

[
    'middleware_pipeline' => [
        /* ... */
        'routing' => [
            'middleware' => [
                Zend\Expressive\Container\ApplicationFactory::ROUTING_MIDDLEWARE,
                MyObserver::class,
                Zend\Expressive\Container\ApplicationFactory::DISPATCH_MIDDLEWARE,
            ],
            'priority' => 1,
        ],
        /* ... */
    ],
]

Timeline for migration

The following features will be removed in version 1.1.0:

  • Support for the pre_routing and post_routing configuration.
  • Support for route result observers.

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