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Character Sets

Zend\Mail\Message assumes a default ASCII character set, and headers and content are quoted accordingly. If you wish to specify alternate characters sets, you will need to:

  • Notify the Message instance of the desired character-set encoding, to ensure headers are encoded correctly.
  • Set an appropriate Content-Type header.
  • In multipart messages, set the character set per-part.

Only in text format

Character sets are only applicable for message parts in text format.


The following example is how to use Zend\Mail\Message to send a message in Japanese.

use Zend\Mail\Message;
use Zend\Mime\Message as MimeMessage;
use Zend\Mime\Mime;
use Zend\Mime\Part as MimePart;

// Typically, PHP will use UTF-8 internally; the following converts
// the text to a Japanese encoding.
function convertToJapaneseEncoding($string) {
    return mb_convert_encoding($string, 'ISO-2022-JP', 'UTF-8');

$mail = new Message();

// Set message encoding; this only affects headers.

// Set the message content type:
$mail->getHeaders()->addHeaderLine('Content-Type', 'text/plain; charset=ISO-2022-JP');

// Add some headers. Textual content needs to be encoded first.
$mail->setFrom('', convertToJapaneseEncoding('Some Sender'));
$mail->addTo('', convertToJapaneseEncoding('Some Recipient'));

// Create a MIME part specifying 7bit encoding:
$part = new MimePart(convertToJapaneseEncoding($content));
$part->encoding = Mime::ENCODING_7BIT;

// Create a MIME message, add the part, and attach it to the mail message:
$body = new MimeMessage();

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